Baibinge 1, a medium-duration upland rice variety with good grain quality released in République Démocratique du Congo

compared with Lienge during two wet cropping seasons in 2004 (April-August) and 2007 (August-January) at Yangambi (Table 1). Soit at the site was loamy with 30-40% clay and was lighter at the surface, favorable enough for the rice crop. Annual rainfall and monthly température averages were 1,605.4 mm and 25.3 °C,

respectively.

The 2-year experiment was laid out in a randomized complété block design with four réplications. Plots were 3 m.x 5 m, in which four to seven seedlings per hill were sown at 30 x 20-cm spacing. No fertilizer was applied in the plots.

Yield improvement was observed during the 2007 cropping season (in the second cropping season) with ail entries, except for PR92-42-3-2-3 (Table 1).

On average, three breeding lines, PR92-42-3-2-3, PR93-75-3-3, and PR93- 75-3-1-1, respectively, yielded 9%, 11%, and 14% more than the check variety Lienge. Ail test entries, except for PR92-107-3-1-1, were tolérant of lodging and had good grain characteristics comparable with those of Lienge (Table 2). Endosperm translucency of PR92-42-3-2-3 and PR93-75-3-2-3 was low (76%) however, but above the minimum required (70%) for quality material. Moderate résistance to leaf blast, the common fungal disease in the country, was found only in PR93-75-3-1-1.

Three breeding lines, PR92-42-3-2-3, PR93-75-3-3, and PR93-75-3-1-1, were selected as promising varieties. PR93-75-3-1-1, yielding 4.01 ha-1 on average, was released in 2007 as Baibingel. High endosperm translucency and volume expansion at cooking, and good résistance to leaf blast, are its main advantages over the other two, resulting in high preference by both consumers and farmers.

IM « 2010

International Rice Research Notes (0117-4185)

 

Table I. Yield of seven selected breeding Unes and check variety Lienge, Yangambi/INERA Research Centre, République Démocratique du Congo.

Breeding

line/variety

Cross Main yield (t ha ‘)J
2004 2007 Av
Lienge (check) OS6/1RATI3 3.3 bc 3.6 b 3.5 bc
PR92-I07-3-1-1 PR.68-11 b-GL/Araguaia 2.8 c 4.0 ab 3.4 c
PR92-42-3-2-3 PR68-I1 b-GL/Araguaia 4.3 a 3.3 b 3.8 ab
PR92-42-3-6 PR68-I 1 b-GL/Araguaia 3.3 bc 3.5 b 3.4 c
PR93-75-3-I-I IR47686-09-2-4/Araguaia 3.5 b 4.5 a 4.0 a
PR93-75-3-2-3 IR47686-09-2-4/Araguaia 3.3 bc 3.9 ab 3.6 bc
PR93-75-3-I-2 IR47686-09-2-4/Araguaia 3.1 bc 3.9 ab 3.5 bc
PR93-75-3-3 lR47686-09-2-4/Araguaia 3.5 b 4.2 a 3.9 a
Av   3.4 3.8 3.6
CV (%)   9.2 12.1 6.1
  • ‘In a column, means followed by the same letter do not differ significantly from each other at the 5% level by Duncan’s multiple range test.

 

International Rice Research Notes (0117-4185)

 

Baibinge 1, a medium-duration upland rice variety with good grain quality released in République Démocratique du Congo

  1. Mateso, K. Bantodisa, M. Musepena, L. Kombozi, and B. Lienge, Centre de Recherches Agronomiques de l’Institut National pour l’Etude et la Recherche Agronomique (INERA), B.P. 2015 Yangambi via Kisangani, République Démocratique du Congo

Upland rice cultivation is the most practiced in the République Démocratique du Congo. This represents more than 90% of the total rice area. Among upland rice varieties, Lienge is the most cultivated, particularly in the eastern part of the country. It is a medium-duration (120-140 d), 150-cm-high, blast-resistant, and lodging-tolérant variety with a yield averaging 3.5 t ha-1. Lienge was particularly selected for its long and slender grain and high volume of expansion at cooking. It was released in 2001 to replace RY1 (IRAT2, yielding 3.2 t ha-1), a sticky-grain rice when cooked, which was less acceptable to consumers, who prefer rice that is harder, flakier, and whiter, and that remains soft even after overnight storage.

Besides Lienge, two medium-duration rice varieties—NERICA4 and i IERICA6—were selected during PVS trials conducted in 2004 at the INERA vesearch center and stations, and released in the country in 2007, with 2.5 tons of foundation seeds produced at the Yangambi research center.

.However, in spite of their high yield potential (3.0-3.5 t ha-1 without fertilizers), NERÏCA4 and NERICA6 were not readily adopted because of their susceptibility to insect attacks during storage. NERICA6 was susceptible to neck blast, whereas NERICA4 has a high proportion of broken grains (30-40%), shows hardness of hull at milling, and has poor threshability, making manual Processing difficult.

In 2001, two crosses were made at the Yangambi research center. We aimed to develop a number of acceptable medium-duration (120-140 d), medium-height (130-150 cm), lodging-tolerant, blast-resistant, and high-yielding (more than 3.5 t ha-1) varieties with good grain characteristics (length more than 9 mm; length/width of at least 3; width/thickness more or less 1; 1,000-grain weight more than 30 g; and endosperm translucency at least 70%) and good cooking quality (amylose content at least 22%; cooking volume expansion more than 350 mL 100 g-1).

&®§2010 \

international I\»ce Research Notes (0117-4185)

comparée! with Lienge during two wet cropping seasons in 2004 (April-August) and 2007 (August-January) at Yangambi (Table 1). Soil at the site was loamy with 30-40% clay and was lighter at the surface, favorable enough for the rice crop. Annual rainfall and monthly température averages were 1,605.4 mm and 25.3 °C, respectively.

The 2-year experiment was laid out in a randomized complété block design with four réplications. Plots were 3 m x 5 m, in which four to seven seedlings per hill were sown at 30 x 20-cm spacing. No fertilizer was applied in the plots.

Yield improvement was observed during the 2007 cropping season (in the second cropping season) with ail entries, except for PR92-42-3-2-3 (Table 1).

On average, three breeding lines, PR92-42-3-2-3, PR93-75-3-3, and PR93- 75-3-1-1, respectively, yielded 9%, 11%, and 14% more than the check variety Lienge. Ail test entries, except for PR92-107-3-1-1, were tolérant of lodging and had good grain characteristics comparable with those of Lienge (Table 2). Lndosperm translucency of PR92-42-3-2-3 and PR93-75-3-2-3 was low (76%) bowever, but above the minimum required (70%) for quality material. Moderate résistance to leaf blast, the common fungal disease in the country, was found only in PR93-75-3-1-1.

Three breeding lines, PR92-42-3-2-3, PR93-75-3-3, and PR93-75-3-1-1, were selected as promising varieties. PR93-75-3-1-1, yielding 4.0 t ha-1 on average, was released in 2007 as Baibingel. High endosperm translucency and volume expansion at cooking, and good résistance to leaf blast, are its main advantages over the other two, resulting in high preference by both consumers and farmers.

IL H2010

International Rice Research Notes (0117-4185)

 

Table I. Yield of seven selected breeding lines and check variety Lienge, Yangambi/INERA Research Centre, République Démocratique du Congo.

Breeding

line/variety

Cross Main yield (t ha ‘)3
2004 2007 Av
Lienge (check) OS6/IRATI3 3.3 bc 3.6 b 3.5 bc  
PR92-107-3-1-1 PR.68-1 1 b-GL/Araguaia 2.8 c 4.0 ab 3.4 c  
PR92-42-3-2-3 PR68-1 1 b-GL/Araguaia 4.3 a 3.3 b 3.8 ab  
PR.92-42-3-6 PR.68-1 1 b-GL/Araguaia 3.3 bc 3.5 b 3.4 c  
PR93-75-3-I -1 IR47686-09-2-4/Araguaia 3.5 b 4.5 a 4.0 a  
PR93-75-3-2-3 IR.47686-09-2-4/Araguaia 3.3 bc 3.9 ab 3.6 bc  
PB93-75-3-I-2 IR47686-09-2-4/Araguaia 3.1 bc 3.9 ab 3.5 bc  
TR93-75-3-3 IR47686-09-2-4/Araguaia 3.5 b 4.2 a 3.9 a  
Av   3.4 3.8 3.6  
CV (%)   9.2 12.1 6.1  

’ln a column, means followed by the same letter do not differ significantly from each other at the 5% level by Duncan’s multiple range test.

r 20-10

International Rice Research Notes (0117-4185)

 

Table 2. Plant characteristics of seven selected breeding lines and check variety Lienge, Yangambi/INERA Research Centre, République Démocratique du Congo (av of 2-year observations [2004, Apr-Aug, and 2007, Aug-Jan]).

Characteristic Lienge

(check)

PR92-107-3-l-l PR92-42-3-2-3 PR92-42-3-6 PR93-75-3-I-I PR93-75-3-2-3 PR93-75-3-1-2 PR93-75-3-3
Days to 50% flowering 94 92 92 89 92 90 90 95
Duration (d) 124 120 119 117 120 118 119. 125
Culm length (cm) 116 118 117 H7 117 117 106 108
Panicle length (cm) 27 28 26 30 29 30 28 28
Productive tillers (no.) 14 13 13 14 17 13 13 14
Lodging (score)3 3 4 3 3 2 2 2 3
Threshability3 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
Spikelet fertility (%) 91 89 88 87 93 87 89 89
Filled grains panicle-1 (no.) 201 208 212 195 218 214 217 202
Grain length (mm) 9.80 9.95 9.48 10.64 9.33 9.27 9.08 10.04
Grain width (mm) 3.00 2.84 2.80 2.78 2.83 2.87 2.82 3.04
Length/width 3.27 3.50 3.39 3.83 3.30 3.23 3.22 3.30
Width/thickness 1.36 1.33 1.29 1.32 1.30 1.29 1.32
1,000-grain weight (g) 36 33 30 31 32 32 31 33
Translucency (%) 91 89 76 87 90 76 80 85
Volume expansion at cooking (mL 100 g‘) 389 415 431 354 462 431 385 397
Disease reaction                
Brown leaf spot MS MS MR MS MR MS MS MS
Leaf blast MS MS MS MS MR MS MS MS
Leaf scald MR MS MR MS MS MR MS MR

’Scored using the Scandard évaluation system for rice, June 1938. MS = moderately susceptible, MR = moderately résistant.

 

fâ 2010

International Rice Research Notes (0117-4185)

 

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Liboga, a new, short-duration upland rice variety released in Republique Démocratique du Congo

  1. Mateso, M. Batondisa, and B. Lienge, Centre de Recherches Agronomiques de l’Institut National pour I’ Etude et la Recherche Agronomique (INERA), BP 2015 Yangambi via Kisangani, Republique Démocratique du Congo (RDC)

Two short-duration rice varieties, IRAT112 and Lioto, with average yields of 2.6 and 2.8 t ha-1, respec- tively, hâve been released in the country since 1982. Farmers hâve shown great interest in cultivat- ing short-duration rice varieties as these allow them to hâve food and money quickly. During the last 2 years, the Agronomie Re­search Centre of INERA at Yangambi has produced, in col­laboration with some nongovern- ment organisations, a total of 75 t of short-duration variety rice seeds and distributed them to farmers in the eastem province of Congo. IRATI 12 produces 8% less than Lioto and its short stature (100 cm) makes the common prac­tice of hand harvesting difficult for tall farmers, who must stoop to harvest panicles. They prefer a medium-height (130-150 cm) va­riety that can tolerate lodging.

To identify more short-dura­tion rice varieties for the country, we compared five Unes with IRATI 12 and Lioto as check vari­eties during two crop seasons in 1999-2000 at the Yangambi re- search center. The 2-year experi- ment was laid out in a random- ized complété block design with four réplications. Plots were 3 m x 5 m, in which 4-7 grains per hill were sown at 25 x 20-cm spacing.

The yields of the test entries, except that of PR43-90-7-2-2, were comparable with those of the check varieties (Table 1). Liboga gave the highest yield. It matured

a few days earlier (Table 2). It was tall but résistant to lodging. Its grains were long and medium in shape. Its volume expansion was higher than that of the check va- \rieties. It showed moderate résis­tance to brown leaf spot and leaf blast. Liboga was released as a new short-duration upland rice variety because of its high yield potential, good plant stature, and désirable grain characteristics.

related with L. Alkali spreading value, which is an indirect mea- sure of gelatinization tempéra­ture, showed a significant posi­tive association with amylose content, suggesting that gelatini­zation température decreases when amylose content of a vari­ety increases. Tomar and Nanda (1981) had the same results. Chauhan et al (1994) observed a positive nonsignificant associa­tion between these two traits. Contrary to présent findings, Chauhan et al (1995) reported a significant négative association between amylose content and al­kali spreading value. The présent study observed a négative signifi­cant association of alkali spread­ing value with L and no associa­tion between alkali spreading value, B, and grain shape, an in­dication that long grains hâve re- duced amylose content and re- quire a higher gelatinization tem­pérature than bold grains. The observed positive significant as­sociation among water uptake, volume expansion ratio, and amylose content indicates rice quality and consumer préfér­ences in Kérala and supports the findings of Tomar and Nanda (1981).

Corrélation studies between physicochemical characters and cooking qualifies revealed that longer-grain types hâve a higher milling recovery than wider- grain ones. High-amylose rice varieties absorb more water with low gelatinization température and produce more cooked mate- rial. When the amylose content of a variety increases, cooking time increases. Sélection for improved amylose content would resuit in a correlated improved response in other cooking qualifies.

References

Chauhan JH, Chauhan VS, Lodh SB. 1995. Comparative analysis of variability and corrélations between quality components in traditional rainfed upland and lowland rice. Indian J. Genet. 55(1):6-12.

Chauhan JH, Chauhan VS, Lodh SB. 1994. Studies on milling quality components of rainfed upland rice. Oryza 31:50-52.

Hussain AA, Muarya DM, Vaish CP. 1987. Studies on quality status of indigenous upland rice (Oryza sativa). Indian J. Genet. 47:145-152.

Madan A, Bhat CM. 1984. Cooking quality and sensory évaluation of high-yielding varieties of rice. Haryana Agric. Univ. J. Res. 14(l):94-99.

Tomar JB, Nanda JS. 1981. Corrélations between quality traits in rice. Oryza 19:13-16.

Lienge, a new medium-duration upland rice variety released in Republique Démocratique du Congo

  1. Mateso, M. Kasongo, and K. Mbuya, Centre de Recherches Agronomiques de l’Institut National pour l’Etude et la Recherche Agronomique, B.R 2015 Yangambi via Kisangani, Republique Démocratique du Congo(RDC)

Several upland rice varieties hâve been cultivated under upland (dryland) conditions, the main rice ecosystem in RDC. RY1 (IRAT2) is a 140-cm-high, me­dium-duration (120 d), blast-re­sistant, and lodging-tolerant va­riety. It was particularly selected for its high grain yield (av 3.2 t ha”1) and yield stability across lo­cations. it was released in 1982, replacing R66, an old cultivar with a yield of 2.5 t ha’1. However, RY1 is sticky when cooked. It is less acceptable to consumers who prefer cooked rice that is harder, flakier, whiter, and denser in ap- pearance and that remains soft even when stored ovemight. This quality of RY1 rice after cooking could be attributed to its low amylose content (15.6%) and this has resulted in poor acceptance by farmers.

We aimed to develop me­dium-height (130-150 cm), lodg­ing-tolerant, medium-duration (120-140 d), blast-resistant, and high-yielding (more than 3.0 t ha-1) varieties with good grain characteristics (length more than 9 mm; length/width of at least 3;

width/thickness more or less 1; 1,000-grain weight more than 30 g; and endosperm translucency at least 60%) and good cooking quality (amylose content at least 22% and cooking volume expan­sion more than 350 mL 100 g”1).

Five pure breeding lines se­lected from three crosses—OS6/ IRAT13 (PR40), OS6/IRAT13// OS6/IRAT112 (PR51), and PR40- 1-2-1 /ITA128//IRAT13 (PR68)— were compared with RY1 during two wet crop seasons in 2000 and 2001 at the Yangambi research station (Table 1). Soil at the site is

 

[RRN 28.1
29

 

Table I. Yield of five selected breeding lines and check variety RYI at Yangambi.

Breeding line/variety Cross Main yield (t ha-1)0
2000 2001 Av .
RYI (IRAT2, 560/var. of RDC 3.4 a 3.1 ab ,i ‘

3.3 ab

check)

PR40-l-5-3a

OS6.IRATI3 3.3 a 2.7 b 3.0 b i~
PR40-l-4-la OS6/IRATI3 3.1 a 2.8 b , 3.0 b
PR40-I -4-lc OS6/IRATI3 3.6 a 3.4 a 3.5 a
PR5 1-5-1-7-7- OS6/IRATI3// 2.8 a 20 c 2.4 c
3aGL

PR68-IIb

OS6/IRATII2

PR40-1-2-1/

3.1 a 3.0 ab 3.1 ab
Av ITAI28//IRATI3 3.2 2.8 3.0
CV (%)   10.6 I 1.8 8.5

“In a column, means followed by the same letter do not differ significantly from each other at the 5% level by Duncan’s multiple range test

Table 2. Plant characteristics of five selected breeding lines and check variety RYI at Yangambi (av of 2 y).

Characteristic RYI

(check)

PR40-l-5-3a PR40-l-4-la PR40-l-4-lc PR5I-5-I

-7-7-3aGL

PR68-IIb
Days to 50% flowering 94 98 96 97 96, 98
Duration (d) 1 22 126 125 124 122 125
Plant height (cm) 145 164 159 150 147 152
Lodging (score)0 3 5 5 3 3 3
Panicle exsertion0 3 1 3 3 1 1
Grain length (mm) 9.62 9.82 10.50 10.20 10.30 10.30
Grain width (mm) 3.62 3.22 3.20 3.30 3.60 3.10
Length/width 2.65 3.05 3.30 3.10 2.90 3.30
Width/thickness 1.40 1.35 1.30 1.40 1.40 1.30
1,000 grain 4 1 36 38 39 .;        45 33
weight (g)            
Translucency (%) 66 86 89 86 82 85
Volume expansion 308 360 372 389 353 354
at cooking (mL 100 g-1)            
Disease reaction0            
Brown leaf spot R R R R MR R
Leaf blast MS MS MS MS MS S
Leaf scald R R R R R R

“Scored using the Standard évaluation System for rice, June 1988.

sandy with 20-30% clay and is lighter at the surface than at depth. Annual rainfall and monthly température averages are 1,885 mm and 24 °C, respec- tively. The 2-year experiment was laid out in a randomized com­plété block design with four rép­lications. Plots were 3 m x5 m, in which 4-7 grains per hill were sown at 30 x 20-cm spacing.

Yield variation among entries was found only in the 2001 crop- ping season but not in the 2000 cropping season (Table 1). PR40- 1-4-lc had the highest yield (3.5 t ha1), while PR15-5-l-7-7-3aGL had the lowest (2.5 t ha’1) across seasons. PR40-l-4-lc had a growth duration of 124 d, a height of 150 cm (Table 2), and was tol­érant of lodging. Its 1,000-grain weight was higher than the mini­mum’ required (30 g). Its grains were long and slender. It showed the highest volume of expansion at cooking, a trait desired by con­sumers. It was résistant to brown leaf spot and leaf scald and mod- erately susceptible to leaf blast. Because of these attributes, it was released as Lienge to replace IRAT2.

June 2003

 

Genetic resources

 

3aibinge 1, a medium-duration upland rice variety with good grain quality released in République Démocratique du Congo

  1. Mateso, K. Bantodisa, M, Musepena, L. Kombozi, and B. Lienge, Centre de Recherches Agronomiques de l’Institut National pour l’Etude et la Recherche Agronomique (INERA), B.P. 2015 Yangambi via Kisangani, République Démocratique du Congo

Upland rice cultivation is the most practiced in the République Démocratique du Congo. This represents more than 90% of the total rice area. Among upland rice varieties, Lienge is the most cultivated, particularly in the eastern part of the country. It is a medium-duration (120-140 d), 150-cm-high, blast-resistant, and lodging-tolerant variety with a yield averaging 3.5 t ha-1. Lienge was particularly selected for ils long and slender grain and high volume of expansion at cooking. it was released in 2001 to replace RY1 (IRAT2, yielding 3.2 t ha-1), a sticky-grain rice whcn cooked, which was less acceptable to consumers, who prefer rice that is harder, flakier, and whiter, and that remains soft even after overnight storage.

Résides Lienge, two medium-duration rice varieties—NERICA4 and NERICA6—were selected during PVS trials conducted in 2004 at the INERA research center and stations, and released in the country in 2007, with 2.5 tons of b .-un dation seeds produced at the Yangambi research center.

However, in spite of their high yield potential (3.0-3.5 t ha-1 without fertilizers), NERICA4 and NERICA6 were not readily adopted because of their susceptibility to insect attacks during storage. NERICA6 was susceptible, to neck blast, wherêas NERICA4 has a high proportion of broken grains (30-40%), shows hardness of hull at milling, and has poor threshability, making manual Processing difficult.

In 2001, two crosses were made at the Yangambi research center. We aimed to develop a number of acceptable medium-duration (120-140 d), medium-height (130-150 cm), lodging-tolerant, blast-resistant, and high-yielding (more than 3.5 t ha-1) varieties with good grain characteristics (length more than

mm; length/width of at least 3; width/thickness more or less 1; 1,000-grain weight more than 30 g; and endosperm translucency at least 70%) and good cooking quality (amylose content at least 22%; cooking volume expansion more than 350 mL 100 g-1).

Seven pure breeding lines were selected from two crosses, PR68-11b- GL/Araguaia (PR92) and IR47686-09-2-4/Araguaia (PR93). These were

LdiL 2üi(j

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