Influence de la fumure organique (Leucaena leucocephala, Tithonia diversifolia, Panicum maximum) et minérale (NPK) sur la nodulation de la souche rhizobienne USDA 3272 et le rendement du niébé dans les conditions agro-écologiques du mont Amba (Kinshasa), Ouest de la RD Congo

Influence de la fumure organique (Leucaena leucocephala, Tithonia diversifolia, Panicum maximum) et minérale (NPK) sur la nodulation de la souche rhizobienne USDA 3272 et le rendement du niébé dans les conditions agro-écologiques du mont Amba (Kinshasa), Ouest de la RD Congo

Selon [2], la comparaison faite entre les plants de tous les traitements (simple et double inoculation) montre que l’amélioration de la croissance des plants due à l’inoculation dépend des inoculums utilisés.

Du point de vue de la fertilité du sol, les microorganismes fixateurs d’azote assurent l’enrichissement continuel et progressif du sol par dégradation et décomposition des tissus végétaux.

L’utilisation des engrais verts comme matière organique retourne au sol les minéraux utiles pour la culture des plantes légumineuses, ces minéraux entrent dans le cycle biogéochimique. L’agriculture biologique suppose la connaissance des espèces capables de fournir au sol l’azote minéral en un temps relativement court, c’est le cas de Tithonia diversifolia utilisée dans cette expérimentation et bien d’autres non reprises dans cette expérience [13].

5 Conclusion

L’ensemble de la vie sur la terre dépend de la fixation de l’azote, une fonction assumée exclusivement par certains procaryotes. Le sol abrite plusieurs espèces des bactéries libres qui font partie des procaryotes fixateurs d’azote. La capacité qu’ont les individus d’incorporer l’azote de l’air au sol, joue un rôle majeur dans la productivité des sols et la nutrition minérale des plantes. D’autres facteurs tendent à élever cette capacité.

La présente étude a consisté à évaluer l’influence de la souche USDA 3272 avec la combinaison variée de la matière organique et de l’engrais minéral (NPK) sur la nodulation et la croissance de niébé.

L’expérience s’est déroulée in situ en pots de végétation suivant un dispositif entièrement aléatoire contenant 6 traitements et 6 répétitions.

Après toutes les observations, il ressort que les traitements T4 et T5 ont assuré un bon comportement des plantules de niébé en termes de hauteur des plants, diamètre au collet et poids sec de la biomasse.

L’inoculation avec la souche USDA 3272 fournie par le Service National des Fertilisants et Intrants Connexes (SENAFIC) n’a pas influencé significativement les caractéristiques nodulaires.

De ce qui précède, il y a lieu d’accroître la recherche sur la sélection des souches autochtones se trouvant dans le milieu du site expérimental.

REFERENCES

  • Joly, 1992. La fixation biologique de l’azote au sein de progrès de production agricole de FAO dans un context d’un développement durable, pp. 56-85.
  • Hadou HARO, Kadidia B. SANON, Tatiana KRASOVA-WADE, Aboubacry KANE, Ibrahima N’Doye et Alfred S. TRAORE. Réponse à la double inoculation mycorhizienne et rhizobienne du niébé (variété, KVX396-4-5-2D) cultivé au Burkina Faso. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 9(3): 1485-1493, June 2015. DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v9i3.31
  • Makoko, M., Ndembo, L. et Nsimba M., 1991 : Hydrodynamique des sols de Kinshasa, les sols du Mont Amba : caractérisations pédologiques, mécaniques et stock d’eau. Revue Congolaise des Sciences Nucléaires 12 (1 et 2) : 72-79.
  • FAO, 1983 : Fichier technique de la fixation symbiotique de l’azote. FAO/GRET, Rome.
  • M., 1999 : Minéralisation du carbone et d’azote dans le sol amendé avec les résidus de Tithonia diversifolia en présence des vers de terre, TFC, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, UNIKIN, inédit.
  • Kadiata, B.D ., MULONGOY, K., Isirimah, N.O. and Amakiri, M.A., 1996. Screening woody and shrub legumes for growth, nodulation and nitrogen-fixation potential in two contrasting soils. Agrof. Systems 33: 137-152.
  • Mafuka, 2000 : Pédologie générale. Notes de cours. Faculté de Sciences Agronomiques, UNIKIN, inédit.
  • Kachaka, S.K, 2000. Biologie des sols: Notes de cours. Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, UNIKIN, inédit.
  • Kachaka, S.K, 2002. Chimie du sol et de l’eau : Notes de cours. Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, UNIKIN, inédit.
  • Nicolas KIYE NKOY-MOKE, Constantin LUBINI AYINGWE, Sébastien LUYINDULA NDIKU et Adrien LIKENGELO BABELANGI. Amendement des sols, influence des fertilisants pour l’amélioration de la culture de Glycine max (L) Merril (soja). J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 8(5): 2030-2041, October 2014. DOI: http://dx.doi.Org/10.4314/ijbcs.v8i5.9
  • Gros, A., 1979: Guide pratique de fertilization. 7è Ed., Paris. P. 382
  • Dominiques, 1985: Bases de la production végétale: Tome I: Le sol. 13e Sciences et Techniques agricoles, p.456.
  • Bonnier C., 1957: Symbiose Rhizobium-légumineuse en région équatoriale, INEAC, Bruxelles, 456 p.

 

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ISSN 1997-342X (Online), ISSN 1991-8631 (Print)

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Agronomie évaluation of rain fed rice varieties in Seke – Banza area,
Démocratie Republie of Congo

Franck NGOYI TSHITE |*, Van TSHIOMBE MULAMBA2 and Patrice LIENGE 3

‘ INERA, Research Station of Girnbi, Démocratie Republic of Congo.

~ UNIKIN (University of Kinshasa), Démocratie Republic of Congo.

JINERA, Research Centre ofYANGAMBl, Démocratie Republie of Congo.

* Corresponding author, E-mail: tshitengoyi@gmail.com, tshitengoyi@yahoo.fr,

Tel.: (+243) 81 52 98 460. (+243) 97 12 66 447

ABSTRACT

Six rain fed rice varieties lfom INERA (National Institute for Agronomie Study and Research) YANGAMBI ccnter were cultivated at INERA GIMBI station. The objective was to gct high yield rain fed rice varieties adapted to Seke-Banza area conditions in view to increase farmers’ production and to reduce import of rice in the country. This évaluation will also permit the diversification of rain fccl rice varieties in investigation area. Randomized bloc design with four réplications was used to evaluate the height of plant at the end of flowering (cm), number of days for plant flowering, number of maturity clays, diseuses résistance, number of panicles per square meter, weight of 1000 grains (g), grains yield (t/ha) and panicle length (cm). Compared to control (NERICA4), significant différence was detected between tested materials (P>0.05). Ail varieties produced high values of evaluated parameters than control. Three varieties were more effective: NERICA11 (4.942 t/ha), LIENGE (4.514 t/ha) and WAB 897-B-B-B-B-2 (4.183 t/ha). Evaluated materials were found to be résistant to diseuses but susceptible to attacks of borer insects. Weight ol 1000 grains was correlated to the plants height, the panicles length and the grains yield. Number of panicles/m2 was correlated to grains yield and to panicles length. A positive corrélation was observed between grains yield and panicles length. Number of days for plants flowering was correlated to number of maturity days. Tested materials can be cultivated in Seke-Banza area conditions in order to improve farms rain fed rice production, increase their income and contribute to reduce rice import in the country.

© 2016 International Eormulae Croup. Ail rights reserved.

Kcywords: Rain fed rice variety, high yield, climate condition.

INTRODUCTION

In Démocratie Republic of the Congo, rice culture, particularly rain fed rice, is very important, for people feeding. But, local production, especially provided by the peasants does not cover the continuai needs of consumers (Kasongo et al., 2003; Bangata et al, 2013a). In 2010, DRC produced 317,231 tons of rice, whereas 102,747 tons were imported to satisfy consumption need (SNSA, 2012). National statistics show increasingly growing import of rice since 2005 to nowadays in view to fi 11 the gap created by low local production. Chausse et al. (2012) showed a decrease in national paddy production for 17.22% due to the lack of high performance seeds, while consumption was increasing, particularly in urban areas.

In the country in general, and in Seke- Banza area particularly, rice is one of the staple foods consumed, after cassava and maize (SNSA, 2012). Its production, largely
depending on the plant materials used (Koné et al., 2008 ; Alom et al., 2013), is not ablc to satisfy consumers need. Improved seeds of rain fed rice used show a low average production whieh does not allow farmers and ail business operators making profits (Lin et al., 2013). This leads local farmers of Seke- Banza to produce just for their own consumption on small areas. But this approach cannot allow people to achieve food seeurity or to reduce imports with ail their conséquences on the national economy (Abu, 201 1). Hence, there is a necessity of obtaining high performance seeds of rain fed rice varieties in order to raise farmers’ income and local production,, thus to reduce national import of rice in the country.

At INERA Yangambi centre, successful rain fed rice varieties with high production level and resisting to diseases were setting up. Their utilization at Girnbi station would contribute to improve the grain yield. Although soil and climate conditions are not the same, it would be essential to evaluate their adaptation capability in Girnbi area for it large utilization by the farmers.

These varieties would play an important rôle in the valorization of local production and in the diversification of rain fed rice seeds in the area.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Experimental area

Experiment was conducted under two seasons of culture, the season A (from mid- September to mid-December 2015) and the season B (from mid-February to mid-May 2016), in INERA GIMBI station situated on 5°22’531 ”south latitude, 13°22’ longitude East, 339 m of altitude, in DRC (Figure 1). Experimental site has the following characteristics: 13°20’883” longitude East, 53°ll’2i” south latitude, 409 m altitude, clay-sandy soil classified in the group of ferrasol on alkaline rock, climate type AW5 according to Koppen classification, mean annual pluviometry 1185.24 mm (Muderhwa, 2009; SENAFIC, 2011).

Tested varieties came from INERA YANGAMBI centre situated at 24°29’ longitude East, 0°48’ North latitude and 470 m of altitude. Its climate type is Af according to Koppen classification and in class B according to Thornthwaite. Soil is a ferrasol belonging to Y1 sériés in the classification of INERA. Its fertility level is low, but favors to rice culture (Kasongo et al., 2003)

During the présent study, plants benefited 600 mm of rain in season A, with average relative moisture of 91.9%; température varied between 21.6 and 29.7 °C. In season B, plants benefited 615 mm of rain and relative moisture of 92.1%; température varied from 21.9 to 30 °C.

Plant material

Six rain fed rice varieties from INERA YANGAMBI Centre (IR47686-13, LIENGE, NERICA11,             WAB569-35-1-1-I-HB,

WAB781-140-1 -1-HB,         WAB897-B-B-B-B-

2), and one improved variety (N ERIC A 4) used as control, were tested in the experimental site of INERA GIMBI.

Methods

Two grains of rice per planting hole were direct- seeded on 8 October 2015 (season A) and on 23 mars 2016 (season B), spacing 20×40 cm for 2-3 cm as depth. Manual weeding was regularly carried oui to keep clean the field. Randomized block design with four réplications in the parcel of 5×2 m was arranged. Neither Chemical nor organic amendment was applied. Plants density was conlrolled respecting number of plants per seed hole.

Daily observations were carried oui and following information were collected: number of days for plant flowering, plant height at the maturation (cm), résistance to diseases, panicle length (cm), number of days at physiological maturity, number of panicles per square meter, weight of 1000 grains (g), yield (t/ha). Data was collected on 20 plant samples chosen randomly in each experimental plot. Weight of 1000 grains was obtained using FH200-500 (F-2000/0.1 g) précision balance. Plants height was measured from soil surface to the tip of the tallest panicle thanks to graduated rule, whereas panicles length was measured from panicle exsertion to the tip of panicle using the same

 

material. Plants maturity days and plants flowering days were numbered respectively from seedling day to the day where 85% of grains are mature for the first and to the day where 50% of tillers produce panicles (1RR1, 2015).

Statistical analysis

Collected data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Statistix software. Main effects were separated by least significant différence (LSD) test ranged at 5% level.

RESULTS

Means of measured parameters (height of plant at the end of flowering (cm), number of days for plant flowering, number of maturity days, number of panicles per square meter, weight of 1000 grains (g), grains yield (t/ha) and panicle length (cm)) are contained in Table 1. Corrélations between collected characteristics are presented in Table 2.

Weight of 1000 grains

Average weight of 1000 grains varied between 26.50 to 33.0 g. LIENGE Variety obtained high value (34.30 g) and was followed by WAB897-B-B-B-B-2 (33.00 g) and WAB569-35-1-1-1-HB (30.25 g). Ail the tested varieties presented high values than thaï of the control (28.00 g), except IR47686-13 (26.50 g).

Plants height

The average height of plants varied between 77.50 and 141.00 cm. The variety LIENGE dominated (141.00 cm) and was followed by WAB569-35-1-1-1-HB (140.75 cm) and WAB897-B-B-B-B-B-2 (131.25 cm). Control recorded 88.15 cm.

Panicle length

Panicle length varied between 17.75 cm (WAB781-140-1-1-HB) and 30 cm (WAB897-B-B-B-B-2). Variety used as control (18.00 cm long) presented the average values comparable to the variety IR7686-13 (18.50 cm).

Number of days at physiological maturity and days of Plants flowering

The average number days to gct ripen varied between 90 and 139 days after seedling. The higher value was obtained with WAB781-140-1-1-HB, followed by WAB569-35-1-1-1-HB and IR47686-13, with respectively 138.75 days, 138.50 days and 120 days for flowering after seedling. The control presented the mean of 108.75 days. NER1CA I 1 was earlier (90 days), followed by WAB897-B-B-B-B-2 (100 days).

Average plants flowering days at 50 % varied between 57 days for NERICAI1 and 100 days for WAB569-35-1-1-1-HB. The control altained its ear emergency al 84 days after seedling.

Number of panicle/m2

This variable indicatcs the tillering capability of each variety and can provide précisé indication on variety productivily. It détermines the crop yield. Mean of this variable situated between 151, 25 and 229, 25 panicles/m2. Higher number of panicle per m2 was recorded with NERICA11, followed by LIENGE and WAB897-B-B-B-B-2. Thèse three varieties yiclded respectively 229, 201 and 197 panicles /m2. Beside, NERICA4 and IR47686-13 presented the lowest values (151 and 161 panicles/m2).

Grain yield

On this point of view, ail evaluated materials produced higher values than the control which recorded the smallest mean value. Globally, the mean varied from 4.942 t/ha to 2.807 t/ha. NERICA1 1 (4.942 T/ha) was the most successful. It was followed by LIENGE and WAB897-B-B-B-B-2 (4.514 t/ha and 4.183 t/ha respectively).

Résistance to diseases

Observations                during                ail

expérimentation period did not reveal any development of disease. However, tested varieties showed sensitivity to the attacks of borer insects that provoked whitehead.

DISCUSSION

Evaluation of ail considered parameters revealed a significant différence between studied varieties. Genetic characteristics of each variety, their reaction relatively to pedoclimatic conditions of the field and cultural techniques utilized can induce an influence on culture yield (Hassan et al., 2012 ; Bangata et al., 2013a). Atchen et al. (2010) reported that there is some interaction between varieties and environment. This idea was supported by Coulibaly et al. (2015) while studying the influence of pedoclimatic conditions on yield components of Jatropha curcas (L) in north savannah and south forest of Ivory Coast. Study of Ruo et al. (2001) revealed thaï the diversity of varieties is a major asset to get high production; this is one of hypothesis motivating our research.

Weight of 1000 grains is one of the production parameters used as critcria of variety choice. Mean obtained in the présent study varies between 26.50 and 33.00 g. These values are comparable to those obtained by Bangata et al. (2013b) in the conditions of Kinshasa with NERICA varieties in low land area. These authors reported weight varying between 29.83 and 30.43 g, the minimum standard value is 32 g (Angladette A., 1966). However, average values obtained in the présent study are lower than the values
reported by Kasongo et al. (2003) with eight rain fed rice lines tested at Yangambi. They found the values varying between 31.6 and 39.3 g. Mahabubur et al. (2013) reported lower values in Bangladesh conditions.

Height of plants is one of the soil fertility indieators (Surekha et ah, 2004). Il is also relatcd to genetic characteristics of a variety. Average value obtained in this study is lower than the one of Bisne and Sarawgi (2008) and Bangata et al. (2013b) studies. These authors obtained values varying from 146.6 to 180 cm and 97.76 to 112.9 cm respectively. The height of LIENGE (141 cm) and WAB 569-1-1-1-HB (140.75 cm) makes them susceptible to lodging while considering violent wind occurring in Seke-Banza area.

About panicles length, présent study got the average value varying between 18 and 30 cm. These results are higher than the one reported by Akkas et al. (2012). Rita and Sarawgi (2008) got panicles length varying between 24.4 and 30.00 cm in Bangladesh conditions, comparable to the one gotten in the présent study. Bangata et al. (2013a) obtained 23.35 and 26.1 cm in the conditions of Kinshasa for the same parameter.

About physiological maturity, NERICA11 and WAB897-B-B-B-B-2 revealed early with 90 and 100 days respectively. In the context of agriculture totally depending on rain, and because of climate change, the earlier varieties hâve to be encouraged in SEKE-BANZA. WAB 569-35- 1-1-1-HB and IR47686-13 were late in maturation (128 and 120 days after seedling respectively) must not be taken in account on this point of view.

Subba et al. (2001) demonstrated that rice maturity dépends on both environmental factors and genetic characteristics of varieties.

While studying agro-morphology and quality characteristics of aromatic rice in India, Saha et al. (2009) and Akkas et al. (2012) got yield values above the one reported in the présent study, whereas Bisne and Sarawgi (2008) reported the lower values than ours. Organic matter in the soil and own potential of varieties count as factors influencing yield (Diallo et al., 2010).

Average panicles number per m2 varied from 151.25 to 229.25. The control (N ERIC A4) produced the low values. Koné et al. (2008) got 123 -196 panicles/m2 in Bénin, whereas Kasongo et al. (2003) obtained 144.5 – 185.3 panicles/m2 with eight hybrid lines of rice at INERA Yangambi centre, in DRC. Resuit produced in this investigation is lower the one reported by IRR1 (2015). This institution reported number of panicle/m2 varying between 300-400 panicles/m2 in under irrigation rice System.

Number of days for 50% flowering is onc of the main indieators of earlier varieties. In the présent study, this number varied between 57 and 91 days aller seedling. In their study, Bangata et al. (2013b) reported the flowering days varying between 81-85 days after seedling in conditions of Kinshasa.

Following scale defined by Kabuyaya (2001), LIENGE, NERICAI 1 and WAB897- B-B-B-B-2 are the most successful varieties. Their flowering duration at 50% is comprised between 76 and 85 days. This quality can favor répétition of the culture along the year and get good productivity (PNR, 1997).

Conclusion

The main objective of the présent study was to identify the high yield rain fed rice varieties adapted to climate conditions of Seke – Banza in Démocratie Republic of the Congo, in view to increase farmers production and thus to reduce import of rice in the country.

Three varieties were detected to be successfi.il among which LIENGE variety is already labeled. Utilization of these varieties in agricultural system of Seke-Banza can hclp to upgrade farmer production and contribute to reduce rice import in the country. The two varieties, NERICA1 1 and WAB897-B-B-B- B-2, not yet catalogued, need the additional tests to enter in national label.

COMPETÏNG INTERESTS

The authors déclaré that they hâve no competing interests.

AUTHORS CONTRIBUTION

FNT conceivcd the subject, performed culture, collected data and analyzed it statistically, proposed manuscript; financiered the publication; VTM gave technical orientations, corrected and translated manuscript; LIENGE Patrice provided seeds.

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International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies ISSN 2028-9324 Vol. 20 No. 3 Jun. 2017, pp. 911-920 © 2017 Innovative Space of Scientific Research Journals http://www.ijias.issr-journals.org/

Influence de la fumure organique (Leucaena leucocephala, Tithonia diversifolia,
Panicum maximum}
et minérale (NPK) sur la nodulation de la souche rhizobienne USDA
3272 et le rendement du niébé dans les conditions agro-écologiques du mont Amba
(Kinshasa), Ouest de la RD Congo

[ Influence organic manure (Leucaena leucocephala Tithonia diversifolia maximum
Panicum
and minerai (NPK) on the coring of the stock rhizobienne USDA 3272 and the
yield of soybean under the agro-ecological conditions of the mount Amba (Kinshasa),

West of the RD Congo ]

Masiala Muanda Gabriel1 and Ngoyi Tshite Franck2

institut National pour l’Étude et la Recherche Agronomiques (INERA), Station de KONDO, Kongo Central, RD Congo
institut National pour l’Étude et la Recherche Agronomiques (INERA), Station de GIMBI, Kongo Central, RD Congo

Copyright © 2017 ISSR Journals. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

ABSTRACT: This study had like objective to evaluate the influence of stock USDA 3272 with the varied combination of the organic matter and minerai manure (NPK) on the coring and the growth of soybean.

The experiment proceeded in situ out of pots of végétation according to an entirely random device containing 6 treatments and 6 répétitions. The treatments were as follows: (T0: Pilot ground; Tl: USDA 3272; T2: USDA 3272 + Leucaena leucocephala T3: USDA 3272 +NPK; T4: USDA 3272 + Tithonia diversifolia T5: Maximum USDA 3272 + Panicum.

After analysis, it arises that the treatments T4 and T5 ensured a good behavior of the seedlings of soybean in terms of height of the seedlings, diameter to the collet and dry weight of the biomass.

Keywords: soybean, influence, manure, nodulation, yield.

RÉSUMÉ: Cette étude a eu comme objectif d’évaluer l’influence de la souche USDA 3272 avec la combinaison variée de la matière organique et de l’engrais minéral (NPK) sur la nodulation et la croissance de niébé.

L’expérience s’est déroulée in situ en pots de végétation suivant un dispositif entièrement aléatoire contenant 6 traitements et 6 répétitions. Les traitements étaient les suivants : (T0 : Sol témoin ; Tl : USDA 3272 ; T2 : USDA 3272 + Leucaena leucocephala ; T3 : USDA 3272 +NPK ; T4 : USDA 3272 + Tithonia diversifolia ; T5 : USDA 3272 + Panicum maximum).

Après analyse, il ressort que les traitements T4 et T5 ont assuré un bon comportement des plantules de niébé en termes de hauteur des plants, diamètre au collet et poids sec de la biomasse.

Mots-Clefs: niébé, influence, fumure, nodulation, rendement.

1 Introduction

Le déficit alimentaire chronique et sans cesse croissant est un des traits les plus caractéristiques des nations du tiers monde.

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