The Effect of Application of Organic Matter during Planting on Growth of an East African Highland Cooking Banana Grown on Two Contrasting Soils in South Kivu, Eastern DR-Congo

  3 MAP 6 MAP 12 MAP 3 M AP 6 MAP 12 MAP 3 MAP 6 M \P 12 MA
Mulungu T0 (Control) 69 a » 73 a 171 a 6.6 a 7.4 a 52 a 5.9 b 7.3 a ?7 a
  Tl 78 a 86 a 240 b 5.9 a 8.0 a 68 b 5.1 a 7.3 a 30 b
  T2 75 a 76 a 185 a 5.8 a 7.6 a 54 a 4.7 a 7.5 a 28 a
  T3 78 a 81 a 181 a 6.7 a 8.0 a 53 a 5.7 b 7.5 a 29 b
  LSD 13.8 12.6 19 1.1 1.09 4 0.8 0.71 1.7
  CV 32 28 17 32 24.6 14 10 16.8 10
Cijingiri T0 (Control) 42 b 43 b 77 c 3.8 c 4.6 b 27 c 4.5 a 5.8 b 25 c
  Tl 51 c 58 c 104 d 4.5 d 6.2 c 33 d 5.3 b 6.8 a 27 d
  T2 62 d 59 c 108 d 4.6 d 6.2 c 33 d 5.3 b 6.7 a 27 d
  T3 59 c 56 c 99 d 4.6 d 6.6 c 34 d 5.6 b 6.8 a 27 d
  LSD 8.3 6.49 12 0.6 0.9 3 0.5 0.66 1.2
  CV 38 30 17 33 38 23 25 25 11
Table 1 Plant height, pseudostem circumference ai soil level and number of leaves fonned at 3, 6 and 12 months after planting (MAP).______________ _

Treatment                                            Plant height (cm)                                    Pseudostem circumference at soil                                        Number of leavcs

level (cm)
#\ Values followed by the same letter in a column are not significantly different at p< 0.05 according to Tukey’s studentised range Test.

*(TI ) I kg dry organic matter applied in the panting hole at planting and I kg of dry organic matter applied as mulch on the soil after planiing, (T2) 2 kg of dry organic matter applied as mulch around the plant after planting and (T3) 2 kg of dry organic matter added in the planting hole during planting. No organic matter was applied in the control (TO).

 

Table 2 Soil characteristics of the two sites.

Site P H OM (%) N (%) P (ppm) K (cmolc/kg) Ca (cmolc/kg) Mg (cinol,/kg)
Cijingiri 4.43 3.0 0.17 2.7 0.15 0.14 0.06
Mulungu 6.50 7.3 0.33 139.8 2.48 12.12 ?.9?

 

(T3) 2 kg of dry organic matter added in the planting hole during planting. No organic matter was applied in the control (TO). The 2 kg of organic matter per plant consisted of a mixture of 1 kg of T diversifolia and 1 kg of Loudetia. The applied quantity of organic matter was derived through surveys conducted in the région on the quantity of organic matter applied per banana plant (unpublished).

The following growth characteristics were assessed at 3, 6 and 12 months after planting: plant height (cm), total number of leaves formed and pseudostem circumference at the base of the plant (cm). Plant height was measured from soil level to the point where the youngest 2 leaf pétioles join. Old and senescent leaves were continuously removed and de-suckering was practiced.

The data were analysed using the GenStat for Windows statis- tical package (GenStat 2003). Tukey’s studentised range Test was used to détermine significant différences (at 5% probability level).

RESULTE AND DISCUSSION

Thcre was an enhaneed plant growth in the more fertile soil at Mulungu compared to Cijingiri (Table 1). Plant heighl at Mulungu at 12 month after planting was at leasl 171 cm, while plants at Cijingiri had not grown taller than 108 cm. Application of organic matter increascd plant growth (i.e. height, circumference, number of leaves) at both sites, al- though in Mulungu this effect was only significant for ail plant growth parameters of 12 months old plants when the application was split over planting hole and surface applica­tion.

As mentioncd in the introduction, it was hypothesized thaï surface application or application into the planting hole would gencrate different responses depending on water stress (i.e. surface application may be preferred) or nutrient stress (i.e. application in planting hole may be preferred). The fact that the mixed planiing hole – surface application performed best in Mulungu may indicate that there is a positive interaction between water availability and plant nutrient uptake. In Cijingiri, the positive effect of organic matter applications was largely independent of the mode of application. This suggests that the primary constraints are most likely cation deficicncies. The poor soils of Cijingiri arc not recommended for banana cultivation, since they are acid and hâve very low plant available P and K contents

(Table 2). Banana plants can support a soil pli ol’4 to 8, but a pH of 6 to 7.5 is recommended (Anonymous 1993). The plant height achieved after 12 months predicts a very poor bunch weight and long crop cycle duration. Swennen and De Langhe (1985) also reported that a high yield is deter- mined by vigorous initial growth of the planted sucker. It will hence be very difficult for the farmer to get acceptable returns to his investments (i.e. labor, planting malerial, or­ganic matter inputs).

The results indicate that small applications of organic matter can hâve a positive impact on plant performance. Further research on the most cost-effective quantity and quality is however needed for optimum banana production in soils with contrasting fertility levels.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are gratefi.il for the Financial support from the Bclgian Direc- torate General for Development Coopération (DGDC) through the Consortium for Improving Agriculture-based livelihoods in Cen­tral Africa (ClAl CA).

REFERENCES

Anonytnous (1993) Mémento de l’Agronome (4lh Edn), République Française. Ministère de la Coopération. Collection Techniques Rurales en Afrique, 806 PP

GenStat (2003) GenStat statistical package for Windows. Lawes Agricultural Trust, Rothamstcd Experimental Station, UK

MUSACO (2004) Rapport de la sixième réunion du comité du pilotage. Multi­plication rapide et distribution de materielle de plantation de variétés amélio­rée et productive de bananier chez le planteur de la province du Bas Congo, 33 pp

Okalebo JR, Gathua KW, Woomer PL (1993) Laboralory Methods of Soi! and Plant Analysis: A Working Manual. 7SBF, EP7. Printcrs. Nairobi. Kenya, 88 pp

Swennen R, De Langhe E (1985) Growth parameters of yield of plantain (Musa cv. AAB). Annals ofBolany 56, 197-204

Swennen R (1990) Plantain Cultivation under West African Conditions, Inter­national Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria, 16 pp

Van Asten PJA, Gold CS, Okech SH, Gaidashova SV, Tushemereirwe W, De Waele D (2004) Soil quality problems in East African banana Systems and their relation with other yield loss factors. hifoMusa 13 (2). 20

 

Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology ©2010 Global science Books

The Effect of Application of Organic Matter during Planting on
Growth of an East African Highland Cooking Banana Grown on
Two Contrasting Soils in South Kivu, Eastern DR-Congo

Jules Ntamwira* • Dowiya Benjamin Nzawele1 • Dieudonné Katunga1 0
Piet Van Asten2 • Guy Blomme3*

1 INERA, Mulungu research station, Bukavu, South Kivu, DR-Congo 7

“ International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, P. O. Box 7878, Kampala, Uganda
3 Bioversity International, Uganda office, P. O. Box 24384, Kampala, Uganda
Corresponding author. * GBLOMME@CGIAR.ORG

ABSTRACT

Highland bananas grown near the homestead in Eastern Démocratie Republie of Congo receive organic household residues and are often mulched. Farmers also tend to allocate their best land for banana cultivation. However, due to an increased demand for bananas, farmers hâve started establishing banana plots on less fertile land. An experiment was conducted to assess plant growth on plots further away from the homestead and with minimal amounts of organic matter input. Two sites with contrasting soil fertility were chosen. Soil samples taken at the onset of the trial were analysed. The organic matter input consisted of Loudetia sp., the dominant weed species found on marginal soils, while Tithonia diversifolia was added to facilitate the décomposition of Loudetia sp. Parcd latéral shoots of the east African highland cooking banana ‘Barhabesha’ (AAA-EA) were planted. The treatments consisted of 2 kg of organic matter added in the planting hole al planting, 2 kg of organic matter applied as mulch around the plant after planting, 1 kg of organic matter applied in the panting hole during planting and 1 kg of organic matter applied as mulch on the soil after planting. No organic matter was applied in the control. The following growth characteristics were assessed al 12 months after planting: plant height, total number of leaves formed and pseudostem circumference at the base of the plant. There was enhaneed plant growth in the more fertile soil at Mulungu. Plant growth was enhaneed with application of organic matter. Although this effect was more pronounced in the poor soil of Cijingiri, plant performance was generally so poor at this location thaï bananas cannot be considered a viable enterprise in such degraded soils.

Keywords: Loudetia sp., Tithonia diversifolia

INTRODUCTION

Bananas and plantains are the staple food for over 20 mil­lion people in the great lakes région of central and eastern Africa. Bananas and plantains are the second most impor­tant staple food crop after cassava in the Démocratie Re­public of Congo (Musaco 2004). The constraints threaten- ing banana and plantain production in eastern DR-Congo include poor soil fertility, pest and diseases, and socio-eco- nomic constraints such as access to inputs. Highland bana­nas are often grown near the homestead in Eastern Démo­cratie Republic of Congo. These plots receive substantial amounts of organic household residues and are often mulched (Van Asten et al. 2004). Farmers often allocate their best land for banana cultivation. However, farmers hâve started establishing banana plots on less fertile land due to an increased population pressure and a high demand for bananas.

Nutrients can be imported in a plot/field through inor- ganic or organic (e.g. mulch, manure) fertilizers (Swennen 1990). Soil organic matter is essential for long terni high production levels in banana plantations. Soil organic matter enhances root growth and thus nutrient and water uptake through improved soil porosity, and water infiltration (Swennen 1990). However, compétition of organic inputs (e.g. mulch) is high and application is labor intensive.

There was an interest to study how small organic inputs that are locally available to farmers can be managed opti- mally for improved plant performance in newly established plantations. Depending on the overriding abiotic constraint (i.e. nutrient and water stress), incorporation or surface ap­plication of mulch will hâve different impacts on plant per­formance on different soil types. An experiment was con­ducted to assess banana plant growth in plots further away from the homestead with small amounts of organic matter applied in different ways to newly established plants. MATERIALS AND METHODS

Two sites with contrasting soil fertility wcrc chosen. The trials were established at the Institut National pour l’Etude et la Re­cherche Agronomiques (INERA) Mulungu research station and at Cijingiri. Mulungu is located at 02°20.042′ S and 028°47.311′ E at an altitude of 1,707 meters above sea level (masl), while Cijingiri is located al 02°42.189′ S and 028°51.721′ E at an altitude of 1,602 masl. The soil at Mulungu is fertile, while Cijingiri has very poor soils. Soil samples taken at the onset of the trial were ana­lysed following Okalebo et al. (1993). The organic matter input consisted of Loudetia arundinacea and Loudetia simplex (Grami- nae), the dominant weed species found on marginal soils, while Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae) was added to facilitate the dé­composition of Loudetia. Parcd latéral shoots of the east African highland cooking banana ‘Barhabesha’ (AAA-EA) were planted.

At cach location there were 2 réplications of 12 plants per treatment. A total of 96 plants wcrc thus planted at cach location. Plant spacing was 3×2 m. The planting holes measured 60 x 60 x 60 cm. Weeding was carried oui at monthly intervals, while con­tour bunds were also established.

The treatments consisted of: (Tl) 1 kg dry organic matter ap- plicd in the planting hole at planting and 1 kg of dry organic mat­ter applied as mulch on the soil after planting, (T2) 2 kg of dry or­ganic matter applied as mulch around the plant after planting and

(T3) 2 kg of dry organic matter added in the planting hole during planting. No organic matter was applied in the control (TO). The 2 kg of organic matter per plant consisted of a mixture of 1 kg of T. diversifolia and 1 kg of Loudetia. The applied quantity of organic matter was derived through surveys conducted in the région on the quantity of organic matter applied per banana plant (unpublished).

The following growth characteristics were assessed at 3, 6 and 12 months after planting: plant height (cm), total number oflcaves formed and pseudostem circumference at the base of the plant (cm). Plant height was measured from soil level to the point where the youngest 2 leaf pétioles join. Old and senescent leaves were continuously removed and de-suckering was practiced.

The data were analysed using the GenStat for Windows statis­tical package (GenStat 2003). Tukey’s studentised range Test was used to détermine significant différences (at 5% probability level).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

There was an enhaneed plant growth in the more fertile soil at Mulungu compared to Cijingiri (Table 1). Plant height at Mulungu at 12 month after planting was at least 171 cm, while plants at Cijingiri had not grown taller than 108 cm. Application of organic matter increased plant growth (i.e. height, circumference, number of leaves) at both sites, al­though in Mulungu this effect was only significant for ail plant growth parameters of 12 months old plants when the application was split over planting hole and surface applica­tion.

As mentioned in the introduction, it was hypothesized that surface application or application into the planting hole would generate different responses depending on water stress (i.e. surface application may be preferred) or nutrient stress (i.e. application in planting hole may be preferred). The fact that the mixed planting hole – surface application performed best in Mulungu may indicate that there is a positive interaction between water availability and plant nutrient uptake. In Cijingiri, the positive effect of organic matter applications was largely independent of the mode of application. This suggests that the primary constraints are most likely cation deficiencies. The poor soils of Cijingiri are not recommended for banana cultivation, since they are acid and hâve very low plant available P and K contents

(Table 2). Banana plants can support a soil pH of 4 to 8, but a pH of 6 to 7.5 is recommended (Anonymous 1993). The plant height achieved after 12 months predicts a very poor bunch weight and long crop cycle duration. Swennen and De Langhe (1985) also reported that a high yield is deter- mined by vigorous initial growth of the planted sucker. It will hence be very difficult for the farmer to get acceptable returns to his investments (i.e. labor, planting material, or­ganic matter inputs).

The results indicate that small applications of organic matter can hâve a positive impact on plant performance. Further research on the most cost-effective quantity and quality is however needed for optimum banana production in soils with contrasting fertility levels.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are grateful for the Financial support from the Belgian Direc- torate General for Development Coopération (DGDC) through the Consortium for Improving Agriculture-based livelihoods in Cen­tral Africa (CIALCA).

REFERENCES

Anonymous (1993) Mémento de l’Agronome (4lh Edn), République Française. Ministère de la Coopération. Collection Techniques Rurales en Afrique, 806 PP

GenStat (2003) GenStat statistical package for Windows. Lawes Agricultural Trust, Rothamstcd Experimental Station, UK

MUSACO (2004) Rapport de la sixième réunion du comité du pilotage. Multi­plication rapide et distribution de matérielle de plantation de variétés amélio­rée et productive de bananier chez le planteur de la province du Bas Congo, 33 pp

Okalebo JR, Gathua KW, Woomer PL (1993) Laboratory Methods of Soit and Plant Analysis: A Working Manual, TSBF, EPZ Printcrs, Nairobi, Kenya, 88 pp

Swennen R, De Langhe E (1985) Growth parameters of yield of plantain (Musa cv. AAB). Annals ofBotany 56, 197-204

Swennen R (1990) Plantain Cultivation under West African Conditions, Inter­national Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria, 16 pp

Van Aslcn PJA, Gold CS, Okech SH, Gaidashova SV, Tushemereirwe W, De Waele D (2004) Soil quality problems in East African banana Systems and their relation with other yield loss factors. InfoMusa 13 (2), 20

 

Eut J Plant Pathol

DO1 10.1007/s 10658-017-1189-6

A control package revolving around the removal of single diseased banana stems is effective for the restoration of Xanthomonas wilt infected fields

 

 

 

Guy Blomme • Walter Ocimati • Charles Sivirihauma • Lusenge Vutseme • Bumba Mariamu •

Muller Kamira ♦ Boudy van Schagen • Javier Ekboir • Jules Ntamwira

Accepted: 22 February 2017

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2017

Abstract Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, the causal agent of Xanthomonas wilt of banana (XW), does not infect or cause symptom development in ail physically attached shoots in an infected mat. Incomplete/partial systemicity and latent infections of­ten occur. The single diseased stem removal (SDSR, the removal of only symptomatic plants) technique dépends on these observations. The SDSR technique, as an al­ternative or complementary practice to complété mat uprooting (CMU) for XW control, was evaluated at eight XW pilot sites in eastern Démocratie Republic of

  1. Blomme (I^K)

Bioversity International, c/o ILRI, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

e-mail: G.Blomme@CGIAR.org

  1. Ocimati

Bioversity International, P.O. Box 24384, Kampala, Uganda

  1. Sivirihauma • L. Vutseme

Bioversity International, Butembo, North Kivu, Démocratie Republic of Congo

  1. Mariamu • M. Kamira • J. Ntamwira

Bioversity International, Bukavu, South Kivu, Démocratie Republic of Congo

  1. van Schagen

Bioversity International, Bujumbura, Burundi

  1. Ekboir

Institutional Leaming and Change Initiative (ILAC), Via dei Tre Denari 472/a, 00057 Maccarese (Fiumicino), Rome, Italy

Congo as a novel control option. This technique is low- cost, simple and easily applicable. Within one month, XW plant incidence at the experimental sites declined to below 10%, while within three and 10 months declined to below 2% and 1 %, respectively. Restoration of ba­nana plots was observed even in plots that initially had over 80% plant disease incidence. CMU removes a larger portion of the inoculum in a field but is very tedious, time consuming and costly in terms of labour and lost production, due to the prématuré cutting of symptomless plants that potentially could bear a bunch. CMU can potentially prevent further spread when XW appears for the fîrst time on a farm or location. The choice of CMU relative to SDSR also dépends largely on farming objectives. CMU can be carried out in in­tensive and market-oriented production Systems, whose ultimate target is éradication, for example, in South- Westem Uganda. In contrast, SDSR is more appealing to subsistence-oriented production, such as in eastern DR Congo, Burundi or central Uganda, whose target is more oriented towards management/control. SDSR can be suggested where access to clean planting material is difficult, thus could be recommended to a very large percentage of small-scale fanners in the currently affect- ed banana-based production Systems in east and central Africa.

Keywords Bacterial wilt of banana • Complété mat uprooting • Démocratie Republic of Congo • Disease control • Farming objectives • Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum

bunches during fruit ripening could significantly inter­fère with the application of the SDSR in case garden tools are not properly disinfected.

Gender rôles in crop management were listed to potentially influence the success of SDSR application. For example, SDSR application during annual crop cultivation within banana plantations was reported to potentially incite conflicts between male and female farmers within a household. Banana mats are predomi- nantly managed by male farmers, while their female counterparts mostly manage annual crops.

SDSR application during annual crop cultivation is casier when annual crops with short stature (e.g. bush beans and sweet potatoes), that cannot impede move- ment, are grown. These allow the eut stems to be easily removed without damaging the annual crops. However, this operation becomes significantly more difficult when climbing beans are grown as some of the bean vines can be attached to the banana pseudostems or leaves.

The application of the SDSR by men during annual crop cultivation may cause friction within the household as women are worried that falling larger diseased stems may damage their annual crops. In such situations, the cutting down of large diseased plants should be donc by first cutting the stem mid-way (as is done during bunch harvesting) in order to avoid annual crop damage. Therefore, in order to overcome gender bottlenecks, strategies are needed to properly understand and take into considération gender issues when designing and disseminating a XW control package.

In addition, the onset of the annual cropping season in subsistence farming Systems is characterized by peaks in labour demand and farmer attention may be diverted to the annual crops. It is hence advised to hâve ail visibly diseased banana plants removed before the onset of the annual cropping season. If the application of the SDSR technique was already started several months before the onset of the annual cropping season, then inoculum levels in the banana plantations will hâve reduced significantly and the number of diseased plants that will be observed during annual cropping will be minimal, hence limiting any possible friction between men and women farmers.

Adoption of technologies dépends on a large set of socio-economic, bio-physical and institutional factors, including e.g. environmental variables, household live- lihood strategies, gender relations, the complexity of the recommendation, the neighbors’ control strategies and the support structure at community level which ail need to be considered in technology design and dissémina­tion. The ultimate goal is to offer farmers management options that are adapted to their local and individual situation, not only SDSR or complété mat uprooting, but others such as cultivars that are less vulnérable to insect vector transmission.

Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Dircctor- ate General for Development (DGD-Belgium) under grant “Transforming CIALCA into a Humidtropics platfbnn in East and Central Africa – CIALCA+” (D4.33/Jk/MUL. 16.04.02.06- CIALCA.2012/10619/1) and grant “FAO-Food Security Risks in the Great Lakes Région – Rapid response to the threat of banana diseases” (FAOR/LOA No 003/2014). This study was conducted in partnership with the Institut National pour l’Etude de la Recherche Agronomiques (INERA-Mulungu, South Kivu) and the Université Catholique du Graben (UCG), Butembo, North Kivu. Spécial thanks goes to David Turner, The University of Western Australia, for editing the manuscript. This work was carried out in the overall framework of the CGIAR research program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas.

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Ntamwira et al., J. Appl. Biosci. 2017 Evaluation ég’onômîçue css va’T  » de mmcot v ’                            ‘        ” rs

micronutriments dans un système intégré d:Agrovorester:e sur deux sols cm : astésaPSstchi – jO^2.C

Journal of Applied Biosçiences 114; ‘1308^1386
ISSN 1997-5902

Ntamwira Bagula Jules12*, Mirindi Cirhuza Téiesphore1, Pyame Mwarabu Lolo^ga Dieudon ‘■ e2, Thec- Djaiio Benoit2, Bumba Mariam Espérance3, Moango Manga Adrien2. Kazadi Wakenge Josué 4 ç; Kanyenga Lubobo Antoine45

■institut National pour l’Étude et la Recherche Agronomiques, SP 2037 Kinshasa 1, Station de Muiungu, RD Congo. telecirhu@yahoo.fr

2Facultés des Sciences et de GestFon de Ressources Renouvelables, Université de Kisangani, BP 2012. Kisangani. RD Congo. :-.meq@\ aneo.n , dhecmyn                                                                                               ,moangoadrien@gmail.com

5Bioversity. Bukavu, Sud, DR Congo. ■ yy.                            y

4CIAT-HarvestPlus, Bureau de Bukavu, RD Congo, kazadijosue@gmaii.com; a.k.lubobo@cgiar.org

5Facu!îé des Sciences Agronomiques, Université de Lubumbashi, BP 1825, Lubumbashi, RD Congo. kanyengaiub@gmail.com

« Auteur correspondent email : ingjules2007@yahoo.fr, Tei : +243993703098

Original submitted’ in on 5th April 2017. Pubfished online at ; yym.                                                        on 30* hune 201?

https:Adx.co, orq/10.4314/jab.v114i1.1C./ ’

RESUME

Objectif: L’objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer différentes variétés de haricots’ riches en fer et zmn dans un système intégré de type «jachère-herbage agro-forestière».

Méthodologie et résultats : Le dispositif expérimental était le split plot avec comme parcelles principe es le type de jachère-herbage agro-forestière, elles étaient subdivisées en quatre sous parcelles secondaires chacune correspondant à une variété de haricot. Les parcelles étaient au total onze et constituaient les différents traitements : TOO (témoin : 0 herbage-arbres, 0 NPK et 0 Fumier) ; TO (NPK+Fumier), Tl à TS issus de la combinaison herbes x arbres+NPK et fumier. Les 11 parcelles principales ont constitué un bloc répète cinq fois par site. Le fumier (20 t MS/ha) et les micros doses d’engrais NPK (50 kg.ha-1) étalent applicrés. Des différences ont été observées entre les traitements et ies deux sites. Le traitement NPK+Fumier (TC. a donné les rendements%n graines de haricots et les teneurs en zinc et en fer dans les graines de haricots les plus élevés dans ies deux sites, dans le site avec sol fertile le rendement était de 1144.2 kg.ha-1 de graines et dans le site avec soi pauvre de 260,6kg.ha-1 de graines). Les traitements TOO et NPK + Fumier+jachère-herbage agro-forestière ont donné des rendements les plus bas (12,2 et 4,7 kg.ha-1) respectivement dans ies sols pauvre et fertile. Les scores de maladies étaient bas, les variétés ont affiché une réaction intermédiaire. Conclusion et application de résultats : L’application de ia microdose d’engrais et la jachère-herbaye acre- forestière ont augmenté ie rendement en graines et la teneur en micronutriments dans les graines de haricots. En plus, cet effet était plus prononcé sur sol pauvre que sur sol fertile. L’application de microdoses c engrais minéral et organique est l’un d’importantes pratiques pour améiiorer le rendement de haricots dans le sol pauvre de Mushinga.

Mots clés : Arbustes, fertilité du sol, graminées, légumineuses, haricots biofortifiés. rendement.

11368

 

Ntamwira e# a/., J. AppL Biosci. 2017 Êvaluaiion-acronomique ces vam de bancct v~ micrcHutriroents dans un système intégré d’AgreforesWfe svr deux sois c; ‘basfck à Œst ce • ■ RC Dùmcm

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Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology ©2010 Global Science tiooks

The Effect of Application of Organic Matter during Planting on
Growth of an East African Highland Cooking Banana Grown on
Two Contrasting Soils in South Kivu, Eastern DR-Congo

Dowiya Benjamin Nzawele Piet Van Asten2 • Guy Blomme3

1 1NERA, Mulungu research station, Bukavu, South Kivu, DR-Congo International institute for Tropical Agriculture, P. O. Box 7878, Kampala. Uganda 3 Bioversity International, Uganda office, P. O. Box 24384, Kampala, Uganda

Corresponding author. * GBLOMiME@CCIAR.ORC

ABSTRACT

Highland bananas grown near the homestead in Eastern Démocratie Republic of Congo receive organic household residues and are often mulched. Farmers also tend to allocate their best land for banana cultivation. However, due to an increased demand for bananas. farmers hâve started establishing banana plots on less fertile land. An experiment was conducted to assess plant growth on plots further awav Iront the homestead and with minimal arnounts of organic matter input. Two sites with contrasting soil fertility werc chosen. Soil samples takei: at the onset of the trial were analysed. The organic matter input consisted of Loudetia sp., the dominant weed species found on marginal soils, while Tithonia diversifolia was added to facilitate the décomposition of Loudetia sp. Pared latéral shoots of the east African highland cooking banana ‘Barhabesha’ (AAA-EA) were planted. The treatments consisted of 2 kg of organic matter added in the planting hole at planting, 2 kg of organic matter applied as mulch around the plant after planting, 1 kg of organic matter applicd in the panting hole during planting and 1 kg of organic matter applied as mulch on the soil after planting. No organic matter was applicd in the control. The following growth characteristics were assessed at 12 months after planting: plant height, total number of leaves formed and pseudostem circumference at the base of the plant. There was enhanced plant growth in the more fertile soil at Mulungu. Plant growth was enhanced with application of organic matter. Àithough this effect was more pronouneed in the poor soil of Cijingiri, plant performance was generally so poor at this location that bananas cannot be considered a viable enterprise in such degraded soils.

Keywords: Loudetia sp., Tithonia diversifolia

INTRODUCTION

Bananas and plantains are the staple Food for over 20 mil­lion peuple in the great lakes région of central and eastern Africa. Bananas and plantains are the second most impor­tant staple food crop after cassava in the Démocratie Re­public of Congo (Musaco 2004). The constraints threaten- ing banana and plantain production in eastern DR-Congo include poor soil fertility, pest and discascs, and socio-eco- nomic constraints such as access to inputs. Highland bana­nas are often grown near the homestead in Eastern Démo­cratie Republic of Congo. These plots receive substantial arnounts of organic household residues and are often mulched (Van Asten et al. 2004). Farmers often allocate their best land for banana cultivation. However, farmers hâve started establishing banana plots on less fertile land due to an increased population pressure and a high demand for bananas.

Nutrients can be imported in a plot/ficld through inor- ganic or organic (e.g. mulch, manure) lertilizers (Swennen 1990). Soil organic matter is essential for long terni high production levels in banana plantations. Soil organic matter enhances root growth and thus nutrient and waler uptake through improved soil porosity, and water infiltration (Swennen 1990). However, compétition of organic inputs (e.g. mulch) is high and application is labor intensive.

There was an interest to study how small organic inputs that are locally available to farmers can be managed opti- mally for improved plant performance in newly established plantations. Depending on the overriding abiotic constraint (i.e. nutrient and water stress), incorporation or surface ap­plication of mulch will hâve different impacts on plant per­formance on different soil types. An experiment was con­ducted to assess banana plant growth in plots further away from the homestead with small arnounts of organic matter applied in different ways to newly established plants. MATERIALS AND METHODS

Two sites with contrasting soil fertility were chosen I lie mus were established at the Institut National pour l’Etude cl la Re­cherche Agronomiques (1NERA) Mulungu research station and at Cijingiri. Mulungu is located at 02°20.042′ S and 028°47.311 ‘ F. at an altitude of 1,707 meters above sea level (masl), while Cijingiri is located at 02°42.189′ S and 028°51.721’ E at an altitude of 1,602 masl. The soil at Mulungu is fertile, while Cijingiri bas very poor soils. Soil samples taken at the onset of the trial werc ana­lysed following Okalebo et al. (1993). The organic matter input consisted of Loudetia arundinacea and Loudetia simplex (Grami- nae), the dominant weed species found on marginal soils, while Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae) was added to facilitate the dé­composition of Loudetia. Pared latéral shoots of the east African highland cooking banana ‘Barhabesha’ (AAA-EA) were planted.

At each location there were 2 réplications of 12 plants per treatment. A total of 96 plants were thus planted at each location. Plant spacing was 3×2 m. The planting holes measured 60 x 60 x 60 cm. Weeding was carried out at monthly intervals, while con­tour bunds were also established.

The treatments consisted of: (Tl) I kg dry organic matter ap­plied in the planting hole at planting and I kg of dry organic mat­ter applied as mulch on the soil after planting. (T? ) ? kg of dry ;>t ganie matter applied as mulch around the plant after planting nixi

Received: 4 February, 2009. Accepted: 5 April, 2010.

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